Rohlf Chapter 5, #1,2,5,7,8,13,17,20,23,24,25,28

#1. Debroglie wavelengths

a. wavelength of photon with energy 10 eV

wavelength =hc/E = 1.24E-07 m

A typical Rohlf approach would be to use hc = 1240 eV nm to

get wavelength =1240 eV nm/10 eV = 124 nm

b. Electron with kinetic energy 6 MeV

This is clearly relativistic, so use wavelength = h/p = hc/pc

Using the relativistic energy expression E=sqrt((pc)^2+(m0c^2)^2)

you get wavelength = hc/sqrt(E^2 -(m0c^2)^2)

where a KE=6MeV gives E=6.511MeV.

wavelength = 1240/sqrt(6.511E6^2 - .511E6^2)= 0.000191036
nm

c. a neutron with momentum 1 keV/c

pc = 1 keV, so wavelength = h/p=hc/pc=1240eVnm/1000 eV = 1.24
nm

d. a neutrino with energy 1 GeV

Since the mass energy is nearly zero if not identically zero,
the neutrino

can be treated the same way as the photon in part a.

wavelength =hc/E =1240 eV nm/1E9 eV = 0.00000124
nm

= 1.24 fermi

#2. Kinetic energies for particles of given wavelengths

a. Electron with wavelength 0.1 nm

Try to cast in the units eV and nm.

Kinetic energy = p^2/2m for this non-relativistic electron

KE = h^2/(2m*wavelength)^2 = (hc)^2/(2mc^2*wavelength^2)

=(1240eV nm)^2/(2*0.511e6 eV* (0.1nm)^2)= 150.4501
eV

If the electron were relativistic we could use E=sqrt((pc)^2+(m0c^2)^2)
to

get E and then get kinetic energy from E-m0c^2

This wavelength gives pc=hc/wavelength = 12400 eV

Using rest mass energy .511 MeV we get kinetic energy

150.4280 eV, so to the accuracy of the constants used, they
are the same.

b. photon with wavelength 0.1nm

The photon kinetic energy is given simply by pc=hc/wavelength=1240
eV nm/.1nm

KE= 12.4 keV

c. alpha particle with wavelength 1 fm

The mass of the alpha particle =3730 MeV

For a 1 fm wavelength pc=hc/wavelength=1240eV nm/1E-6nm

pc= 1240000000 eV= 1240 MeV

The energy is then = 3930.712404 MeV

The kinetic energy is then = 200.7124036 MeV

Using the non-relativistic expression p^2/2m , even with relativistic
mass and

momentum gives = (1240MeV-fm)^2/(2*3730MeV*(1fm)^2) =
206.1126005 MeV

#5. Electron voltage to be same wavelength as 40 keV x-rays

pc=40keV=hc/wavelength =1.24keV nm/wavelength

wavelength = 0.031 nm

For the electron to have this wavelength, pc=hc/wavelength=1240eV
nm/.031 nm

pc = 40000 eV, I.e., pc is the same for the photon and
electron

The electron energy is = 512563.1668 eV

So the electron kinetic energy= 1563.166839 eV

The non-relativistic KE expression p^2/2m gives 1565.55773

so this is essentially a non-relativistic electron.

Bottom line: 1563 volts of acceleration gives electron 0.1nm
wavelength

#7. Kinetic energies of electrons, neutrons and photons of wavelength
0.01 nm

Note that the product pc is going to be the same for all three, and
that the kinetic energy

can be calculated from pc.

pc= hc/wavelength = 1240 eV nm/0.01 nm = 124000 eV

a. electron

Kinetic energy = E - m0c^2 = sqrt((pc)^2+(m0c^2)^2) -m0c^2

=sqrt(124000^2 + 511000^2) - 511000^2 = 14829.8
eV

b. neutron

neutron is non-relativistic.

E = p^2/2m = (hc)^2/(2 m0c^2 * wavelength^2) = 1240^2/(2*939.6E6*(.01)^2)

E= 8.18 eV

c. photon

For the photon, KE = pc = 124 keV

#8. Debroglie wavelength vs average separation of N2 molecule

a. Taking a temperature of 300K, the average speed of nitrogen
molecules

can be obtained from the Maxwell speed distribution

avg speed sqrt(8kT/m*pi)= 476.29 m/s

The wavelength can be put in the form wavelength=h/mv=c(hc/mc^2v)

=c*1240eV nm /(28*931.5E6*476.28)= 0.0299 nm

b. The separation between molecules at 300K is about 3.45 nm

so the separation is about 115.21 x the wavelength.

#13. Davisson Germer experiment

The Bragg condition for diffraction is n* wavelength = 2d sin
theta

The scattering angle is measured to be 50 degrees, so theta =
90-25 = 65 degrees

The electron energy is 54 eV, so we need to calculate wavelength
from that.

wavelength = h/p = h/sqrt(2mE) = hc/sqrt(2 mc^2 E)

wavelength = 1240 eV nm/sqrt(2*511000*54) = 0.1669
nm

Assuming first order, n=1, d = wavelength/(2*sin theta) =
0.0921 nm

#17. Speed uncertainty of proton located to 1 nm precision.

delta p = hbar/(2 delta x) , delta x = 1 nm

delta v = hbar/(2 m delta x) = c hbar*c/(2 mc^2 delta x)

=3e8 * 197 eV nm/(2* 938E6*1E-9)= 31.50 m/s

#20. Electron and proton in atomic-sized volume.

Using the 3D particle in a box expression, the average KE is
given by

minimum avg KE = 9 hbar^2/2mL^2

This is for a cube of dimension L, so V=L^3 and L^2=V^(2/3)

For V=10e-30 m^3: L^2 = 1E-20 m^2

electron avg KE = 5.49269E-18 joules= 34.329 eV

proton avg KE= 2.99631E-21 joules= 0.019 eV

Note that just the uncertainty principle gives the order of magnitude

of electrons in atoms, whereas it suggests that protons could
just wander

in and out of such a volume under the influence of thermal energy.

#23. Fractional width of the tau lepton.

From the uncertainty principle in terms of energy,

lambda = hbar/tau, tau given as 3E-13 seconds

lambda = 6.59E-16/3E-13 = 0.00220 eV

Since the energy is 1.8E9, the fractional width is 2.2E-3/1.8E9
= 1.22 E-12

#24. Size of confinement correlated with v/c = 0.5.

If you treat the particle like a standing wave in a one dimensional
box

so that the wave has value zero at the walls, this gives wavelength
= 2L

Then pc=hc/2L and the particle speed is given by v/c =
pc/E=pc/(gamma m0c^2)

For v/c = .5, gamma = 1.15.

The dimension L is than given by L = hc/2pc = hc/2(beta*gamma*m0c^2)

for electron, L=1240MeV fm/(2*.5*1.15*0.511MeV) =
2110.1 fm

for muon, L=1240MeV fm/(2*.5*1.15*106MeV) =
10.17 fm

for charm quark, L=1240MeV fm/(2*.5*1.15*1500MeV) =
0.7188 fm

#25. Kinetic energy for electron confined to nucleus.

If we take the nuclear size to be 2 fermi

delta p c = hbar c/2 delta x,

delta pc = 197 MeV fm/ 4 = 49.25 MeV This is too
low a value

Taking delta pc = pc and calculating KE gives
48.74 MeV for kinetic energy

Using the 3D particle in a box expression, the average KE is given
by

minimum avg KE = 9 hbar^2/2mL^2

This gives an energy of 85441.1 MeV

#28. Width of the K meson.

From the uncertainty principle in energy,

lambda = hbar/tau , tau = 8.9E-9 sec

lambda=6.59E-16 eV s/8.9E-9 = 7.40E-08 eV