Of the many ways to produce a hologram, the Direct Beam Reflection Hologram is the most straightforward and was our first method for producing holograms. For transmission holograms with a helium-neon laser, the Direct Beam Transmission Hologram or the One Mirror Transmission Hologram can be produced with fairly simple geometries.

  1. Equipment needed.
  2. Direct Beam Reflection Hologram
  3. Direct Beam Transmission Hologram
  4. One Mirror Transmission Hologram
  5. Developing Holograms
  6. References
Example of transmission hologram with reference beam
Fall 2001 Experiment

Holography concepts
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Equipment: Holography

  • Holography Kit from Metrologic
  • Film from Photocopy Warehouse, Agfa 8E75NAH-HD
  • Developing chemicals from Photographers Formulary.
  • Lab helium-neon laser. Mounting hardware from cabinets in SC140 for mounting on optical table.
  • 2ea 3x5" glass plates, four small black paper clamps.

Equipment wish list:
  • 2 each 8mm focal length double convex lenses
  • 2 each plastic hemostats
  • 2 each high quality first surface mirrors
  • 1 each good quality beam splitter
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Direct Beam Reflection Hologram

General considerations: The beamspread should be made slightly larger than the film. The gaussian distribution of the light puts most of the light in the central two-thirds of the beam. The object should be placed close to the film. The closer to the film, the brighter they will appear in the finished hologram. The beam intensity should be about the same from the two sides of the film, so best results are obtained with reflective objects.
Sample Procedure Basic setup of equipment

Sample hologramObject and film Adjusting beam Beam spreader
Mounting laser Mounting film Developing

Example of hologram and procedure
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Sample Procedure, Direct Beam

  • 1. Turn HeNe laser on. Good to have about 30 min to warm up. Set up shutter and center object in beam. Spread of beam should not be too tight, since there is a tendency to burn the film in the center of the beam.
  • 2. Mix chemicals while laser warms up.
  • 3. Set up shot. Object can be held in modeling clay.
  • 4. Set up film plate in dark. Place glass plates on paper towel, squeeze together with film sandwiched. Film and plate will adhere, and air can be squeezed out. Use clips to hold plate set together.
  • 5. Position film. The plate was placed 2-3mm in front of the object (i.e., between the object and the laser.)
  • 6. Expose for 2-3 seconds, depending upon reflectivity. A simple card shutter was used.
  • 7. Film to developer (2 min). Wash (3 min). Bleach until clear. Wash (3 min). Photo-flo 1-2 min, no wash. Hang to dry.
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Holography Setup, Direct Beam Reflection

This is the setup used for a direct beam reflection hologram. The laser, diverging lens, and object are shown. The film, sandwiched between glass plates, is mounted in the clamps visible directly in front of the object. A 3x5 card was used as a shutter.
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Direct Beam Transmission Hologram

General considerations: This kind of hologram has greater depth of field than the reflection hologram so that objects may extend further from the film. A disadvantage is that most of the scene is backlighted and will be in shadow. A laser is required to view the transmission hologram. The emulsion side of the film should face the object. Make sure no shadow of the object falls on the film.

Basic setup of equipment

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One Mirror Transmission Hologram

General Considerations: This process allows front illumination of the object, an advantage over the direct beam method. The light from the mirror should be 3 to 4 times brighter than the light from the object at the film.
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Holography References

  1. T. H. Jeong and C. H. Knowles, Holography Using a Helium-Neon Laser, Metrologic Instruments Inc., 1991. Has diagrams of multiple methods for producing holograms.
  2. F. Unterseher, J. Hansen, B. Schlesinger, Holography Handbook, Ross Books, 1982
  3. J. Iovine, Homade Holograms, Tab Books, 1990
  4. Y. I. Ostrovsky, M. M. Butusov, G. B. Ostrovskaya, Interferometry by Holography, New York 1980
  5. Y. I. Ostrovsky, Holography and Its Application, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1977
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