# Phase

When capacitors or inductors are involved in an AC circuit, the current and voltage do not peak at the same time. The fraction of a period difference between the peaks expressed in degrees is said to be the phase difference. The phase difference is <= 90 degrees. It is customary to use the angle by which the voltage leads the current. This leads to a positive phase for inductive circuits since current lags the voltage in an inductive circuit. The phase is negative for a capacitive circuit since the current leads the voltage. The useful mnemonic ELI the ICE man helps to remember the sign of the phase. The phase relation is often depicted graphically in a phasor diagram. Visualization of phase
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# Phasor Diagrams

It is sometimes helpful to treat the phase as if it defined a vector in a plane. The usual reference for zero phase is taken to be the positive x-axis and is associated with the resistor since the voltage and current associated with the resistor are in phase. The length of the phasor is proportional to the magnitude of the quantity represented, and its angle represents its phase relative to that of the current through the resistor. The phasor diagram for the RLC series circuit shows the main features. Note that the phase angle, the difference in phase between the voltage and the current in an AC circuit, is the phase angle associated with the impedance Z of the circuit.

 AC behavior of inductor AC behavior of capacitor
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# ELI the ICE man Phase Phasor diagrams
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AC circuit concepts

 HyperPhysics***** Electricity and Magnetism R Nave
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