The Lambda Baryon
In 1947 during a study of cosmic ray interactions, a product of a proton collision with a nucleus was found to live for much longer time than expected: 10-10 seconds instead of the expected 10-23 seconds! This particle was named the lambda particle (Λ0) and the property which caused it to live so long was dubbed "strangeness" and that name stuck to be the name of one of the quarks from which the lambda particle is constructed. The lambda is a baryon which is made up of three quarks: an up, a down and a strange quark.
The shorter lifetime of 10-23 seconds was expected because the lambda as a baryon participates in the strong interaction, and that usually leads to such very short lifetimes. The long observed lifetime helped develop a new conservation law for such decays called the "conservation of strangeness". The presence of a strange quark in a particle is denoted by a quantum number S=-1. Particle decay by the strong or electromagnetic interactions preserve the strangeness quantum number. The decay process for the lambda particle must violate that rule, since there is no lighter particle which contains a strange quark - so the strange quark must be transformed to another quark in the process. That can only occur by the weak interaction, and that leads to a much longer lifetime. The decay processes show that strangeness is not conserved:
Another baryon which is also called a lambda with symbol Λ+c contains a charm quark. It has a composition udc and a mass of 2281 MeV/c2.