Weathering processes break down rock into finer and finer material and such material is often transported and deposited as sediment. The processes of compaction and cementation of this sediment over a long period of time turn the sediment into rock. The formation of rock in this way is termed "lithification".
Sedimentary rocks are divided into two broad classes, detrital sedimentary rocks and chemical sedimentary rocks as described below. Sedimentary rocks make up perhaps only five percent or so of the outer 16 kilometers (10 miles) of the Earth (Lutgens and Tarbuck), but the majority of surface rocks are sedimentary. About 75% of the rock outcroppings on continents are sedimentary rocks.
Detrital sedimentary rocks are those for which the material has been transported as solid particles. The particles themselves may have derived from either physical weathering or chemical weathering. Sedimentation means settling from a fluid, either water or air. The texture of sedimentary rocks is described as "clastic", meaning that they are composed of discrete particles that are compacted and cemented together. An example of a non-clastic texture would be crystalline material.
Chemical sedimentary rocks derive from material that is carried in solution to lakes and seas. If the solute precipitates out of the solution to form chemical sediments, rocks such as limestone can be formed.
The data in both tables above is taken from Lutgens and Tarbuck, Essentials of Geology, 7th Edition.
Lutgens and Tarbuck