## Chapter 19,20: Temperature and Heat

 What is internal energy? If you had a gram of copper and a gram of water, both at temperature 0° C, would they have the same internal energy? What is temperature? When two objects have the same temperature, what physically is the same about them? What is heat? Does an object contain a measureable property called heat? What is specific heat?Why is the specific heat of water so much larger than that of copper? What is meant by a phase change? Since large energies are required to change the phase, why doesn't the temperature change? How is the heat of fusion of ice measured? What will be the effect on the measured value if the ice is wet? What is the First Law of Thermodynamics and how is it related to conservation of energy? What are the common means of transferring heat from a hot object? What cooling mechanisms are used by the human body? Is there any way to get heat to move from a cold object to a hot object? How does radiation explain phenomena like a red hot poker? the 3K background radiation? How can the large energies involved in phase changes be used to advantage? What determines the rate at which heat is radiated from an object? What is the greenhouse effect? What contributes to the atmospheric greenhouse effect? Describe the nature of radiated energy as a function of the temperature of the radiating object. If a uniform metal plate with a hole in it is heated, will the hole get larger or smaller? What is the difference between evaporation and boiling? What is the definition of the boiling point? How does it change with pressure? How do you predict the effects on a gas of changes in pressure, volume, and temperature? If the pressure on a constant temperature gas is doubled, what will happen to its volume? If the temperature of a constant volume of gas is doubled, what will happen to the pressure? Why must absolute temperature and absolute pressure be used in calculating the final volume and temperature in the above examples? *Internal energy *Water-metal example *Temperature *Temperature scales *Heat *Heat and work example *Heat questions *Specific heat *Phase change *Heat of vaporization *Heat of fusion *Heat of fusion measurement *First law of thermo *Thermal expansion *Metal plate expansion *Evaporation and boiling *Boiling point *Boiling point variation *Relative humidity *Heat transfer *Conduction *Convection *Radiation *Cooling human body *Cooling cup of coffee * Greenhouse effect *Red hot object * 3K background radiation *IRAS satellite *Ideal gas law
Index
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## Chapter 22: Thermodynamics

 What is a heat engine? What is the First Law of Thermodynamics? What limits are placed on heat engines by the First Law of Thermodynamics? What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics? What additional limits are placed on heat engines by the Second Law of Thermodynamics? Suppose the state legislature passed a law requiring all electric power plants to operate at at least 75% efficiency. Could it be done? What is entropy? How is the second law of thermodynamics stated in terms of entropy? What is enthalpy? Can a heat engine transport energy from a cold object to a hot object? How does an electric heat pump compare with electric resistance heating and natural gas heating? What kind of heat engine cycle is used in automobiles? How does the auto engine cycle produce work? *Heat engines *First law of thermodynamics *Second law of thermodynamics *Carnot cycle *Entropy *Enthalpy *Heat pump *Refrigerator *Energy to hot object *Electric heat pump *Air conditioner *Otto cycle steps *Heat engine cycles
Index
HyperPhysics***** Physics 2211K Go Back