Resistance
Whether or not a material obeys Ohm's law, its resistance can be described in terms of its bulk resistivity. The resistivity, and thus the resistance, is temperature dependent. Over sizable ranges of temperature, this temperature dependence can be predicted from a temperature coefficient of resistance.

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Resistivity and ConductivityThe electrical resistance of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made. Experimentally, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be expressed as The factor in the resistance which takes into account the nature of the material is the resistivity . Although it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometry. It should be noted that it is being presumed that the current is uniform across the crosssection of the wire, which is true only for Direct Current. For Alternating Current there is the phenomenon of "skin effect" in which the current density is maximum at the maximum radius of the wire and drops for smaller radii within the wire. At radio frequencies, this becomes a major factor in design because the outer part of a wire or cable carries most of the current. The inverse of resistivity is called conductivity. There are contexts where the use of conductivity is more convenient. Electrical conductivity = σ = 1/ρ

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Resistor CombinationsThe combination rules for any number of resistors in series or parallel can be derived with the use of Ohm's Law, the voltage law, and the current law.

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Resistivity CalculationThe electrical resistance of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made (resistivity). Experimentally, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and the resistance of a wire can be expressed as Enter data and then click on the quantity you wish to calculate in the active formula above. Unspecified parameters will default to values typical of 10 meters of #12 copper wire. Upon changes, the values will not be forced to be consistent until you click on the quantity you wish to calculate.
The factor in the resistance which takes into account the nature of the material is the resistivity . Although it is temperature dependent, it can be used at a given temperature to calculate the resistance of a wire of given geometry.

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